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The Acclaim of João VI King of Portugal
The Acclaim of João VI King of Portugal 1.


With the restoration of the Bourbons on the throne of France and the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with Portugal, Rio de Janeiro has become, as of January 1816, a target city for French citizens who, for supporting the Empire of Napoleon, fell in disgrace with the new sovereign, some of them renowned artists in their own country. The idea of founding a "French colony" 2 to develop the arts and crafts in the new kingdom came to the perpetual secretary of the course of Fine Arts of the Institute of France Joachim Le Breton 3, who had just been removed from office of the Louvre Museum's collection administrator. Intrduced by naturalist Alexander Von Humboldt to the Marquis of Marialva, interim ambassador of the Portuguese government in Paris, Le Breton managed to convince him to fund the trips for himself and his companions in misfortune to Rio de Janeiro without any other promise. The commission came to the city on March 26, 1816, aboard the US ship Calphe; besides Le Breton, it was composed by Pierre Dillon (Secretary); Jean-Baptiste De Bret 4, (history painter and decorator); Nicolas Antoine Taunay 5, (painter); Auguste Marie Taunay (sculptor); Auguste Henri-Victor Grandjean de Montigny (architect); Charles Simon Pradier (engraver); François Ovide (mechanical engineer, accompanied by a locksmith and a car carpenter); Charles-Louis Levasseur and Louis Symphorien Meunié (Grandjean de Montigny aids); Nicolas Maglioti Enout (master locksmith); Jean Baptiste Level (master blacksmith and expert in shipbuilding); Louis Joseph and Hyppolyte Roy (father and son, carpenters and manufacturers of carriages and wheels). Considering their families, they amounted to forty people. Shortly after, the brothers Marc and Zephyrin Ferrez (sculptors), arrived in Rio de Janeiro.

By intermediation of Antonio de Azevedo Araújo, Earl of Barca and Minister of the Kingdom, some of them have become pensioners of the Royal House by the hiring Decree of 12 August 1816 6. Their objective was to give grandeur to the migrated court by completing the lack of representation of the monarchy in the visual arts with scenarios and ephemeral constructions in wood, such as arches and obelisks for large celebrations; but they also would change the urban physiognomy of Rio de Janeiro, dotting the cramped baroque aspect of the city with palaces in neoclassical style. Araújo's death in 1817 thwarted the goal of Le Breton of founding a Royal Academy of Fine Arts 7. in the court. Melancholic, he withdrew from public life and isolated himself at his cottage in Flamengo, in the city's outskirts, up to his death in 1819.

Nicolas Antoine Taunay and his son Felix Emile Taunay witnessed Nunes Garcia in activity, and became his admirers. Taunay returned to France in 1821. In his correspondences, he often asked his son, who stayed in Brazil, for news of the father-master, whom he referred to as "le grand Mulâtre". Felix later transferred his admiration for the composer to his own son, the Viscount of Taunay, one of his early biographers.

Sigismund Neukomm (1778-1858)
Sigismund Neukomm (1778-1858). 11

A few weeks after the arrival of the French on May 30, 1816, arrived in Rio de Janeiro, aboard the frigate L'Hermione, the delegation of the Duke of Luxembourg, of which were part the botanist Auguste de Saint-Hillaire and the Austrian composer Sigismund Neukomm 8. Convinced by the Count of Barca to stay in Brazil after the duke's return to France, Neukomm was assigned to the public teaching of music, by an ordinance on September 16, 1816 9.

In the court, he became music teacher of prince d. Pedro, of princess d. Leopoldina and of the other royal infants. He composed by order of d. Leopoldina, a "Great Mass of St. Francis", which she offered to her father, Emperor Francis I of Austria. Later he accepted as a student the wife of the General Consul of Russia, the Baron of Langsdorff. He was a severe critic of the prevailing operatic style in sacred songs at that time in Rio de Janeiro, and only one of the 45 works he composed in Brazil was presented in the Royal Chapel: the "Missa Pro Die Acclamationis Ioannes VI", for the acclaim of d. João VI King of Portugal.

In mid-1816, aboard the ship Joaquim Guilherme, arrived in Rio de Janeiro the most famous of the castrati hired in Italy to the Royal Chapel: the soprano Giovanni Francesco Fasciotti 10. In the Royal Chapel Fasciotti would share with Antonio Cicconi the arias for soprano so prized by d. João. Admired by the purity of timbre and the vocal technique, even at age of 66 in 1816, he would be for nearly two decades the major attraction in the opera seasons of the Royal Theater of São João. His premiere in the theater occurred on May 13, 1817, in the lead role of "La Vestale" by Vicenzo Pucitta, staged in honor of the emissary of the Russian Empire. Neukomm reports the participation of Fasciotti in a serenade at the home of the marquis of Santo Amaro in 1817, when accompanied by Nunes Garcia at the harpsichord, he sang a barcarola. Fasciotti would have been also Dr. Jose Mauricio Jr. music teacher, who boasted to have exceeded him in three notes of the musical scale, in a bet made during a lesson.

After the official mourning period for the death of the queen, in early 1817 started the preparatives for the next big event of the monarchy: the wedding of Prince Dom Pedro, the eldest of the royal house, with the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina Josefa Carolina of Hapsburg-Lorraine, daughter of the Emperor of Austria. The contract was concluded on November 29, 1816, and the wedding ceremony, celebrated by the Archbishop of Vienna, took place by proxy on May 13, 1817 at St. Augustine Church in Vienna. Only on July 23 the wedding was celebrated in Rio de Janeiro, with the premiere of the opera "L'oro non compra amore" by Marcos Portugal, in the Royal Theatre of São João.

The Archduchess arrived in Rio de Janeiro on November 5. Soon after disembarkation, there was a ceremony of the nuptial blessing in the Chapel Royal, with a Mass officiated by the bishop and chief chaplain d. José Caetano da Silva Coutinho. At the ceremony would be heard the "Missa Festiva," by Marcos Portugal, conducted by the composer. Two days later, on a reception at the Royal Quinta da Boa-Vista, the serenade "L'augurio di Felicità" by Marcos Portugal, was performed by by the Real Chamber singers. And ending the celebrations, on 8 November at the Royal Theatre of São. João, the opera "Merope," also by Marcos Portugal, premiered in Rio with Fasciotti in the lead role.

The Archduchess, who had a strict religious and musical upbringing, brought with her an ensemble of 16 musicians, led by Erdmann Neuparth, who would stay in Rio up to 1821. Nunes Garcia wrote to them a whole series of 12 "Divertimenti", received with enthusiasm, whose original scores were lost.

There are signs that the priest-master was undergoing financial difficulties in 1817 because this year requested the grant of a retirement home to the Earl of Barca, who conveyed the request to d. João. The king's response was favorable to him 12, and according to the Historical and Commercial Almanac of the City of Rio de Janeiro, he took up residence on São Jorge street, currently Gonçalves Ledo street.

Only one of the 1817 Mauritian works is now known: the "Trezena de São Francisco de Paula" (CPM 75), composed for the church of this saint. This year would also compose a "Beatus omnes "(CPM LXIX) for Corpus Christi; a "Laudate Pueri "(CPM LXXXIII), and the 12 "Divertimenti" (CPM CLXVIII) for wind instruments, mentioned above, and the opera "Le Due Gemelle" (I due gemelli) (CPM CLXIX), the first of its kind written by a Brazilian composer. The original score was destroyed when the Royal Theatre of São João caught fire in 1825. Another copy would have been in the hands of Marcos Portugal, but the composer's papers were also lost after his death.

At that time, Marcos Portugal suffered a brain hemorrhage that paralyzed his right arm.

In February 1818, the Prince Regent was acclaimed King d. João VI of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve. A new wing, made of wood, was built especially for the ceremony of acclamation, beside the Royal Palace. The "Te Deum for the fortunate acclaim" was composed by Marcos Portugal, probably before the stroke he suffered. The "Missa Pro Die Acclamationis Ioannes VI", as mentioned above, was composed by Neukomm.

The other celebrations of events connected to the royal family in 1818 did not have the musical participation of Marcos Portugal. On May 13, celebrating the anniversary and the acclaim of d. João VI, took place at the Royal Theatre of São João the Rio premiere of the opera "Coriolanus", of Nicolini, perhaps at the suggestion of Fasciotti, who has played the role in Genoa in 1812. On June 24 there was a new presentation of "La Vestale"; and on October 12, another gala presentation at the birthday and wedding anniversary of prince d. Pedro: the debut of the opera the "Camilla" by Ferdinand Paer, followed by ballets of the Louis Lacombe company.

The year 1818 was very productive for Nunes Garcia. He composed for the Thirds of Mount Carmel a "Litany" (CPM 40); and a "Tantum Ergo" (CPM 83), both presented with the "Novena of N. Senhora do Carmo" (CPM 67); and also the "Missa para a festa de N. Senhora do Carmo" (CPM 110), which he conducted with the musicians of the Royal Chapel. He also composed a "Qui Sedes and Quoniam" (CPM 163), for his student Cãndido Inácio da Silva. He wrote three motets to the Royal Farm of Santa Cruz, the "Motet of the Apostles" (CPM 57), the "Motet for the Virgins" (CPM 58), and the "Motet for the Feast of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist" (CPM 60). And finally a "Beheading Mass" (CPM XXCV), for the feast of the beheading of St. John the Baptist, completed in 20 days, the time he spent in the Royal Farm with the royal family.

A party in Rio de Janeiro
A satyrical engraving depicting a party in Rio de Janeiro.
A castrate sings with piano accompaniment. 13

In 1819, the first daughter of Prince Pedro and Princess Leopoldina was born, named Maria da Glória, the future Queen Mary II of Portugal. The Senate appointed Nunes Garcia to conduct the Mass in thanksgiving, celebrated in the Church of St. Francis of Paulas. The "Te Deum" was composed by Marcos Portugal.

This year, the first performance in Brazil of Mozart's "Requiem" (K 626) was promotes in December 1819, at the church of the Recolhimento do Parto, with the musicians of the brotherhood of Saint Cecilia, and conducted by Nunes Garcia. Neukomm wrote a "Libera Me" based on some of the themes of the work, presented in sequence, and an article about the presentation, published in 1820 in the journal Allgemeines Musikalisches Zeitung, Vienna, on which, among other accolades, said "nothing was left to be desired" 14.

In 1819 the father-master was elected director of his beloved Brotherhood of St. Peter of the Clerics 15.

In 1820, in honor of Le Breton, who died in 1819, the booklet Historical News Of the Life and Works of Joseph Haydn was published, containing the speech he made in 1810 the French Academy as obituary of the composer. With translation of José da Silva Lisboa 16 and comments by Neukomm, it was the first text on music printed in Brazil.

There is only the record of a "Creed" (CPM CXVII), of the Mauritian output in 1819, of which there are no present copies. Of the year 1820, a small number of works of the father-master are known: a "Creed in C Major" (CPM 122) for voices and organ, the psalm "Laudate Pueri" (CPM 176), for the Vespers of the Holy Spirit, and the "Missa Mimosa" (CPM 111). Probably this time were also the "Matinas de Nossa Senhora da Conceição" (CPM 174). The works composed in 1820 that are lost: a "Magnificat" (CPMXI), an "Anthem of the Vespers of the Holy sores of O.L.J.C." (CPM XVII), a "Credidi" (CPM LXXIII) to the said vespers, a "Mass and Creed of Saint Barbara" (CPM CXI) for voices and organ; a sequence "Victimæ Paschali" (CPM CXXV), for the Mass of the Resurrection of O.L., and the "Vespers of the Holy Spirit" (CPM CXLVII), of which there is only left the "Laudate Pueri" (CPM 176).

The year 1820 was marked by intense political activity in Portugal. The people demanded the immediate return of the royal family, which led to the Constitutional Revolution of Oporto. The aristocratic Portuguese in Rio de Janeiro also showed signs of dissatisfaction, because there was reason to be far from the kingdom.

Map of Rio de Janeiro in 1817
(To obtain a description of some places, move the mouse over the picture)

Map of Rio de Janeiro in 1817.
The city had a remarkable growth in the 42 years that separate this one from Vilhena's map, almost doubling its built area. 17

1 DEBRET, Jean Baptiste. Viagem Pitoresca e Histórica ao Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia, 1992. v.3, pr. 37.

2 Only in the twentieth century the "colony" would be called "French Artistic Mission".

3 Joachim Le Breton (Saint-Méen, France, 1760 - Rio de Janeiro, 1819). He first joined the College of the Teatines to become cleric, and later abandoned the priestly career with the French Revolution, joining the Jacobins. He worked as head of the Museums, Conservatories and Libraries Section of the French Ministry of the Interior, and from 1795 as professor of moral and political science at the Institute of France, at the Louvre Museum. Appointed in 1798 administrator of the Louvre Museum collection, he was dismissed in 1815 for being contrary to the repatriation of works of art acquired during the Napoleonic Wars. Elected perpetual secretary of the course of Fine Arts in 1803, was also ousted in early 1816. He embarked for Rio de Janeiro in the leadership of the "French colony" in order to promote the education of the civil servants and the progress of agriculture, mineralogy, industry and commerce. His project of creating a Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts would be postponed after the death of the Earl of Barca, protector of the French artists, which led them to teach for a small number of students or other activities under the royal protection. He died on June 9, 1819, on his estate in the neighborhood of Flamengo. Available at: Memory of the Brazilian Public Administration. Access: 9.29.2015.

4 Jean Baptiste De Bret (Debret) (Paris, 1768-1848). In 1783 he joined the studio of Jacques-Louis David, master of French neoclassicism, who was his cousin. He accompanied the master on his second trip to Italy, where he stayed for a year. Back in Paris, he painted pictures in the neoclassical style allusive to themes of the revolutionary period. He conducted his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, 1785-1789, and at the School of Bridges and Pavement, the future Technical School, where he became professor of drawing. Awarded in 1791, he exhibited in 1798 and in 1805 at the Paris Salon. The restoration of the monarchy, his divorce and the death of his only son facilitated the decision to join the "French colony". He disembarked in Rio de Janeiro in 1816, and became the official painter of the Court, depicting scenes of the nobility, their ceremonial and major events. In parallel, he toured several cities across the country, representing landscapes, customs and everyday scenes. He was named set designer at the Royal Theatre of São João and from 1826 he taught historical painting classes at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, which opened in 1826, with a considerable number of disciples. In 1829, he organized the Exhibition of the Class of Historical Painting of the Academy, the first public art exhibition in Brazil. He stayed in Brazil after the return of King João VI to Portugal, serving the Emperor d. Pedro I. With the abdication of d. Pedro he requested furlough from the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts and returned to France, where he published one of his best known works: the book "A Picturesque and Historical Travel to Brazil", between 1834 and 1839. In 1837, the Brazilian government granted him a pension as recognition for his services. He died in Paris on 28 June 1848. Available at: Memory of the Brazilian Public Administration. Access: 10.17.2015.

5 Nicolas Antoine Taunay (Paris, 1755-1830). Painter, illustrator, teacher. He began his painting studies in 1768 in the workshops of François Bernard Lepicie, Nicolas Guy Brenet and Francisco Casanova. He was accepted in 1784 as aggregate at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture and nominated for pension three years in the Mancini Palace Academy in Rome. He returned to France in 1787 and exhibited in the Parisian salons. In 1793, with the extinction of monarchical institutions as result of the French Revolution, he withdrew from Paris, returning in 1796 to join the newly created Institute of France. With the end of the Napoleonic Empire, traveled to Brazil as part of the "French colony". Arriveing in Rio de Janeiro in 1816, he became a pensioner of King João VI (1767-1826) and landscape painting professor at the Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts. In 1821, after disagreements emerged for the appointment of Henrique José da Silva (1772-1834) to the direction of the school, he returned to France. Source: Encyclopedia Itaú Cultural. Access: 29.9.2015.

6 Pensions totaling 8:032$000 per year, as follows:
Ao cavaleiro Joachim Lebreton 1:600$000
Pedro Dillon 800$000
João Batista Debret, pint. hist. 800$000
Nic. Ant. Taunay, pintor 800$000
Aug. Taunay, pintor 800$000
A. H. V. Grandjean, arquiteto 800$000
Simão Pradier, gravador 800$000
Francisco Ovide, professor de mecânica 800$000
C. H. Levasseur 320$000
L. Simp. Meunié 320$000
F. Bonrepos 192$000
SCWARCZ, Lilia Moritz. O Sol do Brasil: Nicolas Antoine Taunay e as desventuras doa artistas franceses na corte de d. João. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2008. 412 p. p 209.

7 The goal of Le Breton would only be postponed. The Imperial Academy of Fine Arts was inaugurated only in 1826, when part of the members of the "colony" had already returned to France.

8 Sigismund Neukomm (Salzburg, Austria, 1778; Paris, France, 1858). He began his music studies in the hometown with organist Weissauer and then with Michael Haydn, chapel master and organist of the cathedral. At the same time he studied philosophy and mathematics at the University. In 1792 he was appointed honorary organist of the church institution and, in 1796, Master-of-Choir of the court theater. He moved to Vienna at 16, where he was for seven years a student of the great Joseph Haydn, Michael's brother. In 1804 he traveled to Russia, recommended to the Tsarina Maria Feodorovna by Haydn for the position of chapel master in St. Petersburg. He also worked in the German Theatre of this city, and as a freelance musician in Moscow. In 1809 he left for Berlin, then occupied by the French, and returned to Vienna, to visit the old master. He would have received the task to finish some of his unpublished works, and orchestrate and reduce to voices and piano several others. In 1810 he settled in Paris as a pianist of Prince Talleyrand's house. He conducted in Notre Dame cathedral in the royal presence a "Te Deum" of his own, in thanksgiving for the solemn entry into Paris of King Louis XVIII. He accompanied Talleyrand, appointed minister of foreign affairs, to the Congress of Vienna (1815), when he had his "Grand Requiem in C minor", composed for the anniversary of the death of Louis XVI, presented at St. Stephen's church, with 300 singers conducted by Salieri. Shortly after he received the insignia of Knight of the Legion of Honor. In 1816, he was invited to join the entourage of the Duke of Luxembourg, French diplomat sent as ambassador extraordinary to the court of Rio de Janeiro, when diplomatic relations between France and Portugal were restored. He was invited by the Earl of Barca, minister of the kingdom Francophile and great supporter of the arts in court, to stay in Rio de Janeiro. The Minister hosted the composer in his own home, to ensure the presence of a renowned musician in the court. He stayed in Rio de Janeiro until 1821. his presence contributed to the popularization of the works of Haydn and Mozart in Brazil. Throughout his career, he composed about 1,800 works.

9 "Regarded the recognized merit of Sigismund Neukomm in the art of music he distinctly professes and wanting My Service to use him for both the public teaching of his art, as for all those compositions I am Served to assign him: I will for good grant him an annual pension of 800$000 paid in quartiles by My Royal Treasury, also being him obliged to play every time for this purpose he is requested. Have the Marquis de Aguiar, of the Council of State, assistant Minister to the order of the Cabinet and President of my Royal Treasury it well understood and do perform. R.J. Palace, 16.IX.1816". Arquivo Nacional, decretos sobre fazenda, Livro 1, p. 183v. In ANDRADE, Ayres de. Francisco Manuel da Silva e seu tempo: 1808-1865 - Uma fase do passado musical do Rio de Janeiro à Luz de novos documentos. Rio de Janeiro: Edições Tempo Brasileiro. 1967. v. 2, p. 206.

10 Giovanni Francesco Fasciotti (Peia, Italy, 1750 - Rio de Janeiro, 1840). According to Fétis, he began his singing career in Pisa, in the service of the musical chapel and in theatrical activities, although his presence is not documented in the city archives. In 1799 at the Philharmonic Theatre in Verona, he played the main role in the opera "Il ritorno di Serse" of Marcos Portugal, repeated in 1804 at the Pergola Theater in Florence. In Milan, in the carnival of 1800 he acted as substitute singer in the drama "Idante ovvero I sacrifici d'Eccate" of Marcos Portugal, at La Scala. On January 13, 1801 he played Ariodante in the opera "Ginevra ed Ariodante" of Giacomo Tritto, at the San Carlo in Naples, with the tenor D. Mombelli. In November he performed again at the San Carlo, in the role of Alluccio in "Scipione in Cartagena" by D. Cercià. In the same theater, on January 12, 1802, he played Atamaro, in the opera "Sesostri" of G. Andreozzi, also with Mombelli. In September 1803 he traveled to Bologna, to work as "aide of the master composer" in the Philharmonic Academy. In the fall of that year, in the Teatro Comunale in Bologna, he played Corasco in "La selvaggia nel Messico" of G. Nicolini. In the carnival in 1806 he traveled to Turin, where in the Imperial Theatre (formerly Royal), he played Conrad in the opera of the same name by F. Orlandi. In February 8th, 1808, he returned to this stage, with mezzo-soprano MT Belloc and tenor Giorgi S. Gentile, in "La conquista delle Indie orientali" by V. Federici. On March 23, 1811 at La Scala in Milan he played David, in the oratorio "Il Saulle ovvero trionfo di Davide", of N. Zingarelli. In the 1812 Carnival in the theater San Agostino of Genoa, he played Coriolanus in the opera of the same name of Nicolini. On 26 December of that year in Argentina Theatre in Rome, he played the title role in the opera "Tito in Langres" of A. Del Fante. In February 1813, in the same theater, he played Idreno in "Amurat II" of Pietro Raimondi. Back in Turin in 1814, he acted in the opera "Bajazet" by P. Generali, staged at the Imperial Theatre during the carnival. In the same theater he played the leading role in "Cesare in Egitto" of E. Paganini. After 1815, there are no records on Fasciotti acting on Italian stages. He arrived in Rio de Janeiro in 1816, with her sister, Maria Teresa, after signing a contract in Lisbon, by which he would receive 720$000 per year, plus 180$000 from the "Royal Purse" and 306$000 (25$500 per month) for housing. He premiered on May 13, 1817 at the Teatro Real de São João in Rio de Janeiro, in "La Vestale" of Pucitta. In November he performed in the Rio premiere of the opera "Merope," of Marcos Portugal. In 1818, he premiered in Rio the "Coriolanus" of Nicolini. On May 13, 1820 he was very applauded in the leading role of "Aureliano in Palmira" by Rossini, and the following year, the title role in "Tancredi" by Rossini, would consecrate him definitively; the same role would be repeated on January 22, 1826, in commemoration of the birthday of the Empress Leopoldina. This year the success was repeated in "Aureliano in Palmira" by Rossini and "La Vestale" of Pucitta. On July 12, 1828, he stood out again in the title role in "Otello" by Rossini. In 1829 he renewed for another six years his contract with the Imperial Chapel receiving 745$000 annually, plus the other amounts he already received, plus another 180$000 for his retirement, and plus 480$000 to be received by the end of the contract as gratification. He was among the few in the chapel who escaped the massive layoffs in 1831. In 1833, at the age of 83, according to the newspapers, he continued to sing in the Imperial Chapel and in the Royal Theatre of São Pedro de Alcantara. Sources: Treccani, La Cultura Italiana. Acess: 10.25.2015; PACHECO, Alberto José Vieira. Giovanni Francesco Fasciotti. In Dicionário Biográfico Caravelas. Lisboa: Núcleo de Estudos da História da Música Luso-Brasileira, 2010; and ANDRADE, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 164-167.

11 MATTOS, op. cit., 1997. Photograph section, p. XII.

12 "The King our Lord regarding what requested Father José Maurício Nunes Garcia, Music Master of his Royal Chapel is served to order that Y. M. provide him a Retirement Home for habitation, which should have the necessary space for him to his Music Lessons, which I participate to Y. M. for your intelligence and execution. God be with Y. M. Palace, February 17, 1817 [...] Earl of Barca". MATTOS, op. cit., 1997. p. 131.

13 A.P.D.G. A party at Rio de Janeiro. In MATTOS, op.cit., 1997. Photograph section, p. XIII.

14 "Rio de Janeiro. The corporation of musicians (the Portuguese Brotherhood, a sort of religious corporation) celebrates, celebrates every year the feast of St. Cecilia following the [...] Mass in memory of deceased musicians in the course of the year. For this purpose some members of that body, which have the sensibility for the best music, recommended to be played, at that feast, the "Requiem" by Mozart, performed by a large orchestra last December, in the church of the Childbirth Hospital. The Direction of all was up to the conductor of the Royal Chapel, Father José Maurício Nunes Garcia. The enthusiasm with which Father Garcia faced all difficulties in order, to, also here, run at least once the masterpiece of our immortal Mozart deserves the warmest thanks of the art friends found therein. For my part, I feel obliged to take this opportunity [...] He causes justifiably the most qualified attention and surprise, once his training is his own work. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he joined the Episcopal seminary of this city where he became finally chapel master, after the completion of the studies and his ordination. With the arrival of the court to Brazil, he obtained the place of chapel master of the Royal Chapel which he continues to assume, nevertheless neglecting his poor health. Before the "Requiem," the "Nocturnen" taken from the "Officio Defunctorum" BY David Perez were sung [...] The presentation of Mozart's masterpiece left nothing to be desired; all the talents aspired to welcome, with dignity, the foreign Mozart in this new world. This first attempt was above all perspectives, so satisfactory that is expected not to be the last of its kind. June No. 29". MATTOS, op. cit., 1997, pp. 143-144.

15 DINIZ, Jaime. A Presença de José Maurício na Irmandade de São Pedro [The Presence of José Maurício in the Brotherhood of St. Peter]. In MURICY, José Cândido de Andrade et alii. Estudos Mauricianos. Rio de Janeiro: INM/FUNARTE/PRÓ-MEMUS, 1983. p. 43.

16 José da Silva Lisboa, Viscount of Cairu (Salvador, 1756 - Rio de Janeiro, 1835). Son of Henrique da Silva Lisboa and Helena Nunes de Jesus. Bachelor of canon law and philosophy from the University of Coimbra, where applied in Hebrew and Greek. After graduating, he returned to Bahia and was appointed professor of philosophy and Greek. He returned to Portugal in 1797, where he obtained the post of deputy and secretary of the Bahia city inspection table. In 1804 he published his major work, "Principles of Political Economy", the first book on the subject in Portuguese, inspired by the work of Adam Smith. He stepped down in 1808 to accompany d. João VI in Rio de Janeiro, appointed judge in the Bureau of Justice of the Palace; deputy of the Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture, Industry and Navigation, a position he held until the end of life. He boosted the creation of a political economy class and collaborated in the drafting of decrees that dictated the opening of Brazilian ports and the lifting of the ban on the installation of manufactured goods in Brazil. In 1809 he was commissioned to organize a trade code. In 1815 he was appointed Censor of Justice of the Palace, in charge of the examination of works for printing. In 1821, he was included in the list of members of the Court Board to examine the constitutional laws discussed in Lisbon. Bahia representative in the Constituent Assembly, he spoke with applause on religious freedom, then under discussion. Awarded with the Order of Christ and official of the Cross; member of the Fostering Society of the national industry of Rio de Janeiro, of the Agriculture Society of Bahia, and other international societies. BLAKE, Augusto Victorino Alves do Sacramento. Dicionário Bibliográfico Brasileiro [Brazilian Bibliographical Dictionary]. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, 1883-1902. v. 5, pp. 193-203.

17 SANTOS, Luís Gonçalves dos. Memórias Para Servir à História do Reino do Brasil: Dividida em Três Épocas da Felicidade, Honra, e Glória, Escritas na Corte do Rio de Janeiro no Ano de 1821, e Oferecidas À S. Majestade El Rei Nosso Senhor D. João VI Por L. Gonçalves dos Santos [Memoirs to Serve the History of the Kingdom of Brazil Divided into Three Seasons of Happiness, Honour and Glory; Written at the court of Rio de Janeiro in the year 1821 and offered to His Majesty the King our Lord John VI by L. Gonçalves dos Santos]. Lisbon: Impressão Régia, 1825. 454p, p. LXXII.

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